任务

爬取https://www.aliexpress.com/wholesale?SearchText=cartoon+case&d=y&origin=n&catId=0&initiative_id=SB_20200523214041这个页面下的商品详情,由于页面是异步加载的,需要使用Selenium模拟浏览器来获取商品url。但直接使用Selenium定位网页元素速度又很慢,因此需要结合Re或者BeautifulSoup来提高爬取效率。

 


模拟登陆

使用Selenium模拟登录,登录成功后获取cookie。

def login(username, password, driver=None):
    driver.get('https://login.aliexpress.com/')
    driver.maximize_window()
    name = driver.find_element_by_id('fm-login-id')
    name.send_keys(username)
    name1 = driver.find_element_by_id('fm-login-password')
    name1.send_keys(password)
    submit = driver.find_element_by_class_name('fm-submit')
    time.sleep(1)
    submit.click()
    return driver


browser = webdriver.Chrome()
browser = login('Wheabion1944@dayrep.com','ab123456',browser)
browser.get('https://www.aliexpress.com/wholesale?trafficChannel=main&d=y&SearchText=cartoon+case&ltype=wholesale&SortType=default&page=')

 这个网站对用户监管不严,使用邮箱注册都不需要进行验证,可以用这个网站获取假邮箱进行注册:http://www.fakemailgenerator.com/

其实后续真正运行程序爬的时候并没有登录,爬了十页也没碰到反爬。

 


获取商品详情页的URL

这一过程需要解决的问题在于该网页是ajex异步加载的,网页不会在打开的同时加载全部数据,在下拉的同时网页刷新返回新的数据包并渲染,因此通过request无法一次性读到网页的全部源码。解决思路是通过Selenium来模拟浏览器下拉行为以获取一页内全部的数据,然后暂时还是通过sel去获取元素。

登录后打开任务需要的页面会出现广告弹窗,首先需要关闭广告弹窗:

def close_win(browser):
    time.sleep(10)
    try:
        closewindow = browser.find_element_by_class_name('next-dialog-close')
        browser.execute_script("arguments[0].click();", closewindow)
    except Exception as e:
        print(f"searchKey: there is no suspond Page1. e = {e}")

 模拟下拉行为并获取一页中全部商品的url:

def get_products(browser):
    wait = WebDriverWait(browser, 1)
    for i in range(30):
        browser.execute_script('window.scrollBy(0,230)')
        time.sleep(1)
        products = wait.until(EC.presence_of_all_elements_located((By.CLASS_NAME,"product-info")))
        if len(products) >= 60:
            break
        else:
            print(len(products))
            continue
    products = browser.find_elements_by_class_name('product-info')
    return products 

后来经学长指点发现不需要这么麻烦,搜索页的商品信息虽然是经过下滑操作才会通过JS动态渲染,但商品信息其实都是写在html文档里的,可以通过以下方式获取:

url = 'https://www.aliexpress.com/wholesale?trafficChannel=main&d=y&SearchText=cartoon+case&ltype=wholesale&SortType=default&page='
driver = webdriver.Chrome()
driver.get(url)
info = re.findall('window.runParams = ({.*})',driver.page_source)[-1]
infos = json.loads(info)
items = infos['items']  

然后就可以慢慢去匹配。

 


 

获取商品内页详情

这一部分的问题在于需要爬取的网页很多,继续使用sel会导致爬虫速度很慢,另外商品内页的数据似乎不是异步返回的。解决方案是先使用sel访问商品内页,将整个网页源码down下来后用正则表达式去匹配元素:

def get_pro_info(product):
    url = product.find_element_by_class_name('item-title').get_attribute('href')
    driver = webdriver.Chrome()
    driver.get(url)
    page = driver.page_source
    driver.close()
    material=re.findall(r'"skuAttr":".*?#(.*?);',page)
    color=re.findall(r'skuAttr":".*?#.*?#(.*?)"',page)
    stock=re.findall(r'skuAttr":".*?"availQuantity":(.*?),',page)
    price=re.findall(r'skuAttr":".*?"actSkuCalPrice":"(.*?)"',page)
    pics = re.findall(r'<div class="sku-property-image"><img class="" src="(.*?)"', page)
    titles = re.findall(r'<img class="" src=".*?" title="(.*?)">', page)
    video = re.findall(r'id="item-video" src="(.*?)"', page)
    return material, color, stock, price, pics, titles, video

 


接入MySQL

爬取到的数据要求用数据库储存,这里需要接入MySQL,数据库crawl和表SKU都是提前建好的:

conn = pymysql.connect(host='localhost', user='root', password='ab226690',db='crawl')
mycursor = conn.cursor()

通过循环实现数组数据的写入,这里很坑的一点是insert的时候pymysql的格式转换和python不是完全一样,参数用'%s'匹配就可以,不需要针对数字型字段搞整形或浮点型

    #写入sku表
    sql = "INSERT INTO SKU(skuID,material,color,stock,price, url) VALUES (%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"#就是这里,虽然有些变量是数值型,但还是用%s来对应
    for i in range(len(skuID)):
        if titles:
            params = (skuID[i], material[i], color[i], stock[i], price[i],url)
        else:
            params = (skuID[i], material[i], ' ', stock[i], price[i],url)
        try: 
            mycursor.execute(sql,params)
            conn.commit()
        except IntegrityError: #当出现duplicate primary key时会抛出这个错误,这里这样写的本意是碰到重复主键就跳过这一条记录,但实际运行这段代码的时候还是会报错。偷懒的解决办法是把主键取消,但这样好像不是很合理,日后知道怎么解决再来更新
            conn.rollback()
            continue

实现写入操作时碰到的另一个问题是用re匹配不到元素时返回的是一个空的list,这样会导致无法写入mysql而报错,因此要判断待写入的变量是否是空的list,是的话要赋合适的值:

    sql = "INSERT INTO product(url, product_name, rating, reviews, video, shipping) VALUES (%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"

    if rating:
        pass
    else:
        rating = '0.0'

    if review:
        pass
    else:
        review = '0'
    
    if video:
        pass
    else:
        video = ' '
    
    if shipping:
        pass
    else:
        shipping = '0.0'
        
    params = (url, pro_name, rating,review, video, shipping)
    mycursor.execute(sql,params)

关闭数据库连接:

conn.commit()

 


 

提升速度

除了前面提到的使用selenium访问后转用re匹配外,还发现一个提升爬虫效率的点:

browser = webdriver.Chrome()
browser.get(source_url)
browser = close_win(browser)  

 像这样重复地实例化和关闭浏览器驱动是很耗费时间的,因此要使用尽量少的浏览器窗口来访问网站。

本任务中是只实例化了两个webdriver,一个用来访问多个商品的展示页,一个用来访问商品内页,具体方法就是实例化后不要这两个driver,一直用它们来get新的网页。原来的代码中是每打开一个网页都初始化一个新的webdriver去访问,做出这一修改后代码运行时间减少了一半。

def scratch_page(source_url):
    browser = webdriver.Chrome()
    browser.get(source_url)
    browser.maximize_window()
    browser = close_win(browser)
    pros = get_products(browser)
    #商品内页的浏览器
    browser2 = webdriver.Chrome()
    error_file = open('ERROR.txt','a+',encoding='utf8')
    for pro in pros:
        url, pro_name, skuID, material, color, stock, price, pics, titles, video,rating,shipping, review = get_pro_info(pro, browser2)#对前面的get_pro_info
做简单修改 if len(skuID)!=len(color): error_file.write('url:'+url+'n') continue save_data_to_sql(url,pro_name, skuID, material, color, stock, price, pics, titles, video,rating,shipping,review) error_file.close() browser.close() browser2.close()

  


 

 完整代码

from selenium import webdriver
import time 
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC
import re
import pymysql
from sqlalchemy.exc import IntegrityError#捕获重复主键的异常

def login(username, password, driver=None):
    driver.get('https://login.aliexpress.com/')
    driver.maximize_window()
    name = driver.find_element_by_id('fm-login-id')
    name.send_keys(username)
    name1 = driver.find_element_by_id('fm-login-password')
    name1.send_keys(password)
    submit = driver.find_element_by_class_name('fm-submit')
    time.sleep(1)
    submit.click()
    return driver

def close_win(browser):
    time.sleep(5)
    try:
        closewindow = browser.find_element_by_class_name('next-dialog-close')
        closewindow.click()
    except Exception as e:
        print(f"searchKey: there is no suspond Page1. e = {e}")
    return browser

def get_products(browser):
    wait = WebDriverWait(browser, 1)
    for i in range(30):
        browser.execute_script('window.scrollBy(0,230)')
        time.sleep(1)
        products = wait.until(EC.presence_of_all_elements_located((By.CLASS_NAME,"product-info")))
        if len(products) >= 60:
            break
        else:
            continue
    products = browser.find_elements_by_class_name('product-info')
    return products

def get_pro_info(product, driver):
    url = product.find_element_by_class_name('item-title').get_attribute('href')
    driver.get(url)
    time.sleep(0.5)
    page = driver.page_source
    material=re.findall(r'"skuAttr":".*?#(.*?);',page)
    color=re.findall(r'"skuAttr":".*?#.*?#(.*?)"',page)
    stock=re.findall(r'"skuAttr":".*?"availQuantity":(.*?),',page)
    price=re.findall(r'"skuAttr":".*?"skuCalPrice":"(.*?)"',page)
    pics = re.findall(r'<div class="sku-property-image"><img class="" src="(.*?)"', page)
    titles = re.findall(r'<img class="" src=".*?" title="(.*?)">', page)
    video = re.findall(r'id="item-video" src="(.*?)"', page)
    skuID = re.findall(r'"skuId":(.*?),',page)
    pro_name = re.findall(r'"product-title-text">(.*?)</h1>', page)
    rating = re.findall(r'itemprop="ratingValue">(.*?)</span>', page)
    shipping = re.findall(r'<span class="bold">(.*?)&nbsp;', page)
    review = re.findall(r'"reviewCount">(.*?) Reviews</span>', page)
    #当商品没有颜色可选时,网页源码结构变化,需要重新匹配
    if titles:
        pass
    else:
        material = re.findall(r'"skuAttr":".*?#(.*?)"', page)
        color=[]
        pics = re.findall(r'"imagePathList":["(.*?)",', page)
    return url, pro_name, skuID, material, color, stock, price, pics, titles, video,rating,shipping, review 

def save_data_to_sql(url,pro_name, skuID, material, color, stock, price, pics, titles, video,rating,shipping,review):
    url = re.findall('/item/(.*?).html',url)
#    try:
    conn = pymysql.connect(host='localhost', user='root', password='ab226690',db='crawl')
    mycursor = conn.cursor()
    #写入sku表
    sql = "INSERT INTO SKU(skuID,material,color,stock,price, url) VALUES (%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"
    for i in range(len(skuID)):
        if titles:
            params = (skuID[i], material[i], color[i], stock[i], price[i],url)
        else:
            params = (skuID[i], material[i], ' ', stock[i], price[i],url)
#        mycursor.execute(sql,params)
#        conn.commit()
        try:
            mycursor.execute(sql,params)
            conn.commit()
        except IntegrityError:
            conn.rollback()
            continue
    #写入img表
    sql = "INSERT INTO image(url, color, img) VALUES (%s,%s,%s)"
    i = 0
    if titles:
        for i in range(len(titles)):
            params = (url, titles[i], pics[i])
#            mycursor.execute(sql,params)
#            conn.commit()
            try:
                mycursor.execute(sql,params)
                conn.commit()
            except IntegrityError:
                conn.rollback()
                continue
    else:
        params = (url, ' ', pics)
#        mycursor.execute(sql,params)
#        conn.commit()
        try:
            mycursor.execute(sql,params)
            conn.commit()
        except IntegrityError:
            conn.rollback()
    #写入product表
    sql = "INSERT INTO product(url, product_name, rating, reviews, video, shipping) VALUES (%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"

    if rating:
        pass
    else:
        rating = '0.0'

    if review:
        pass
    else:
        review = '0'
    
    if video:
        pass
    else:
        video = ' '
    
    if shipping:
        pass
    else:
        shipping = '0.0'
        
    params = (url, pro_name, rating,review, video, shipping)
    mycursor.execute(sql,params)
    conn.commit()
#    try:
#        mycursor.execute(sql,params)
#        conn.commit()
#    except Exception:
#        conn.rollback()
    conn.close()
#    except Exception as e:
#    conn.rollback()
#    print(e)
        
def scratch_page(source_url):
    browser = webdriver.Chrome()
    browser.get(source_url)
    browser.maximize_window()
    browser = close_win(browser)
    pros = get_products(browser)
    #商品内页的浏览器
    browser2 = webdriver.Chrome()
    error_file = open('ERROR.txt','a+',encoding='utf8')
    for pro in pros:
        url, pro_name, skuID, material, color, stock, price, pics, titles, video,rating,shipping, review = get_pro_info(pro, browser2)
        if len(skuID)!=len(color):
            error_file.write('url:'+url+'n')
            continue
        save_data_to_sql(url,pro_name, skuID, material, color, stock, price, pics, titles, video,rating,shipping,review)
    error_file.close()
    browser.close()
    browser2.close()
    
url = 'https://www.aliexpress.com/wholesale?trafficChannel=main&d=y&SearchText=cartoon+case&ltype=wholesale&SortType=default&page='
for p in range(1,11):
    url_ = url + str(p)
    start_time = time.time()
    scratch_page(url_)
    end_time = time.time()
    print('成功爬取' + str(p) + '')
    print('' + str(p) + '页耗时: '+str(start_time-end_time)+'s')

 

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