简单句

什么是英文句子

  1. 中文的简单句可以灵活组合句子成分(主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语、补语),而英文的句子必须要有谓语,并且主语应该是谓语动作的发出者,宾语应该是谓语动作的承受者(牢记)
    1. J001:我的英语说得很好:I speak English well.
    2. J002:北京西站,到了:We are arriving Beijing West Railway Station.
    3. J003:狗没有找到:I did not find the dog.
  2. 练习:
    1. J004:我和你度过了一个美好的日子:I spent a good day with you.

注:I spent with you. 中并没有宾语,因为不可能度过和你,而应该是度过一个美好的日子,即这句话省略了宾语,原句应该是:I spent a good day with you.

句子的分类

主谓

  1. J005:他死后,我们笑了:He died, then we laugh.

注:主语不仅是谓语的发出者,谓语还必须具有时态

主谓宾

谓语为实义动词

主 谓/系 表

谓语为系动词,系动词分为以下4类:

  1. be:am,is,are;
  2. 感官动词:look,smell,taste,sound,feel;
  3. 变化:become,get;
  4. 保持:keep,stay,remain。

主谓双宾(了解)

两个宾语之间加上系动词,如果意思说不通,为主谓双宾

主谓宾补(了解)

  1. J006:我给Nick买了一条狗:I bought Nick a dog.
  2. J007:他给了我五个糖果:He gave me five sugars.
  3. J008:狗让他开心:The dog makes him delight.

两个宾语之间加上系动词,如果意思说得通,为主谓宾补

句子的成分

谓语

  1. 谓语的成分: 有时态的(暂时排除情态动词)实义动词(词组)或系动词
    1. J009:你的母亲一定像你一样高雅:Your mother must be very elegant like you.
    2. J010:我的旧情人非常喜欢我:My old flame loves me so much.
  2. 练习:
    1. J011:在美国经济中,私有财产的概念不仅包含对生产资源的所有权,也指其他一些特定的权利,如确定一个产品价格和与另一个私人个体(经济单位)自由签定合同的权利:In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract whit another private individual.
  3. 一句话中的动词(词组)能不能多:谓语只能是动词(词组),动词(词组)只能充当谓语,因此一个句子中有多个动词(词组)时,我们需要把动词(词组)变成非谓语动词,有以下3种变法:
    1. V-ing:表示主动或进行(主动居多);
      1. J012:嘲笑其他人的梦想是不对的:Laughing at other's dreams is not right.
      2. J013:我喜欢嘲笑其他人:I enjoy laughing at others.
    2. V-ed:表示被动或完成(被动居多);
    3. to do:表示目的或将来(目的居多)。
      1. J014:我的计划是去嘲笑愚蠢的人:My plan is to laugh at those stupid ones.
  4. 一句话中能不能没有动词(词组):没有动词(词组)就表示一句话中没有谓语。
    1. J015:我反对你:I against be you.
  5. 练习:
    1. J016:他哭着离开了:He left crying.
    2. J017:爱我就是抱抱我:Loving me is hugging me.
    3. J018:爱你是我最大的错误:Loving you is my biggest fault. 或 It is my biggest fault to love you.

总结:一句话中动词(词组)有且只能有一个,多余的变成非谓语结构,少了的加be动词

注:非谓语动词可以充当除了动词的任何成分

主语

  1. 主语的成分:代词、名词(短语)、非谓语动词和从句。
    1. J019:我是一个老师:I am a teacher.
    2. J020:我的工作是教Python的:My job is to teach Python.
    3. J021:帮助你学好Python是我的工作:Helping you to learn Python well is my task.
  2. 主语能否缺失:一个句子中如果没有主语,可以使用以下4种方式代替:
    1. it:句子缺少主语,并且和天气、温度相关
      1. J022:外面很热(主语不是外面,外面不能很热,而是温度):It is hot outside.
      2. J023:重庆现在很冷(主语不是重庆,重庆不能冷,主语应该是温度):It is cold in Jiangxi now.
      3. J024:外面在下雨(主语不是外面,外面不能下雨,主语应该是天气):It is raining.
    2. there be:一个句子中没有主语,并且有“有”字
      1. J025:二师兄的头上有朵花:There exists a flower on the head of the second brother.
      2. J026:有很多人喜欢我:There seem immense amounts of individuals having affection for me.
      3. J027:有很多原因能解释我的观点:There remain numerous factors accounting for my perspective.
    3. 被动:一个句子没有主语或人称代词作为主语,可以变主动为被动。但是以下几种情况没有被动:
      1. 不及物动词没有被动
      2. 系动词没有被动
      3. Have表示“有”的时候没有被动
      4. J028:必须指出语法在考研中还是相当重要的:Grammar must be pointed out to be quite crucial in the examination of postgraduates.
      5. J029:越来越多的人意识到污染很严重:Pollution is realized exceedingly severe by an increasing number of people.
      6. J030:我们不应该盲目追星:Superstars should never be pursued blindly.
      7. J031:孝敬父母很重要:Respecting parents is argued to be of great importance by a sea of private individuals.
    4. 人称代词:以上三种无能为力的时候才允许破例使用,否则尽量不要使用
      1. J032:我去上学:I go to school.

宾语

  1. 宾语的成分:代词、名词(短语)、非谓语动词和从句。
    1. J033:我喜欢Nick:I love Nick.

表语

  1. 表语的成分:代词、名词(短语)、非谓语动词、形容词、介词短语和从句。
    1. J034:我的梦想是成为一名科学家:My dream is becoming a scientist.

小结

主语 谓语 宾语 表语
成分 代词、名词(短语)、非谓语动词和从句 代词、名词(短语)、非谓语动词和从句 代词、名词(短语)、非谓语动词和从句 代词、名词(短语)、非谓语动词、形容词、介词短语和从句

时态

一般过去时

  1. 定义:过去某个时间点发生了某个动作
  2. 构成:一般在动词后加ed,不规则的除外
  3. 写作中的应用:举例或描述图表
    1. J035:2010年,使用手机的用户增长到了1500万:The number of subscribers using mobile phones increased to 15 million in 2010.
    2. J036:有一次,我生病了,但没有人照顾我:Once, I got sick but nobody took care of me.

一般将来时

  1. 定义:表示动作尚未发生
  2. 构成:will + be
  3. 写作中的应用:状语从句中经常用到
    1. J037:当爱来临的时候,我要牵住他的手(主将从现):When love comes, I will hold his hands.
    2. J038:因为他很正直,所以注定了在这场斗争中他会是一个牺牲品:Because he is pretty honest, he will be doomed to be the sacrifice in the fight.

现在完成时

  1. 定义:
    1. 表示动作发生在过去,但是对现在造成了影响
    2. 表示动作从过去开始发生,持续到现在,并且还可能持续
      1. J039:我在江西居住很多年了:I have been in Jiangxi for many years.
  2. 构成:have + done
  3. 写作中的应用:只要中文句子中出现“已经”或“曾经”,一般都可以用该时态
    1. J040:环境污染这个话题已经成为公众关注的焦点了:The subject as to environmental pollution has become the public concern.
    2. J041:父母曾经花费那么多时间和精力把我们抚养长大:Parents have spent a lot of time and energy bringing us up.

现在进行时

  1. 定义:表示一个动作正在发生
  2. 构成:be + V-ing
  3. 写作中的应用:描述图画的时候,让语言更生动
    1. J042:守门员正在把自己想象得像蚂蚁一样渺小:The goalkeeper is imaging himself as small as an ant.
    2. J043:图片中一盏小油灯正在微笑:An oil lamp is smiling in the cartoon.

一般现在时

  1. 定义:表示动作经常发生或客观真理
  2. 构成:动词原来的形式,如果主语为第三人称单数,则动词后加-s或-es
  3. 写作中的应用:写作绝对以一般现在时为主,作文中基本是该时态的天下
    1. J044:合作能使我们更快地完成工作:Cooperation enables us to finish our jobs as quickly as possible.
    2. J045:孝敬父母是中国民族的传统美德:Respecting parents is a Chinese traditional virtue.
    3. J046:Nick老师很帅:Teacher Nick keeps handsome.
    4. J047:环境污染越来越严重:Environmental pollution becomes increasingly serious.

动词的分类

系动词

  1. 系统词分为以下四类:
    1. be:am,is,are;
    2. 感官动词:look,smell,taste,sound,feel;
    3. 变化:become,get;
    4. 保持:keep,stay,remain。

助动词

  1. 定义:帮助谓语构成时态、否定、疑问或被动的单词,有时还用于加强语气。
    1. J048:我教Python已经很多年了:I have taught English for years.
    2. J049:他知道那个:He did know that.

情态动词

  1. 定义:表明说话人主观态度的词汇,不能单独使用,必须得加动词原形共同作谓语
    1. J050:我每天都煮饭:I cook every day.
    2. J051:我每天不得不煮饭:I have to cook every day.
    3. J052:我必须得出去:I must be go out.

实义动词

  1. 及物动词:后面不加介词而是直接加宾语,并且后面必须加宾语的动词
    1. J053:看电视:Watch television.
  2. 不及物动词:后面加介词才能加宾语的动词
    1. J054:看着我:Look at me.

写作技巧

  1. 把自己不会写的单词都换成自己会写的
  2. 写不来的长难句暂时写成简单句
    1. J055:温室里的花朵不能经受风雨,这个事实证明孩子不应该被过分溺爱:The evidence that the flower in the green house fails to endure any storms indicates that kids should never be spoiled too much.
    2. J056:温室里的花朵不能经受风雨,这个事实证明孩子不应该被过分溺爱(简单句):We should not protect our children too much. The flower in the house cannot suffer the rain.
  3. 只要作文中有逻辑关系,就一定要用逻辑关系词

课后练习

  1. J057:这两天心理很不爽:I feel rather upset recently.
  2. J058:全球在变暖:It is becoming warm throughout the world.
  3. J059:重庆有很多人口:There exist a sea of citizens in Chongqing.
  4. J060:如果有毅力,迟早都会成功:If there appears persistence in your mind, success will be achieved sooner or later.
  5. J061:有意义就是好好活,好好活就是做有意义的事情:Being meaningful is to live happily and living happily is to do meaningful things.
  6. J062:笑并不意味着快乐:Smile hardly means happiness.
  7. J063:妒忌本身就是一种仰望:Jealousy itself is a kind of worship.
  8. J064:建议政府采取措施来缓解这个问题:Authorities should be suggested to take measures so as to relieve the problem.
  9. J065:毫无疑问,溺爱孩子的问题越来越严重了:There is little doubt that the issue of spoiling children is becoming growingly serve.
  10. J066:保护运动员是应该的:Athletes ought to be protected.
  11. J067:我弟弟每天上网,花大量的时间浏览不同的网页:My brother surfs the Internet every day, spending a lot of time looking on many different web sites.
  12. J068:恨一个人其实就是拿别人的错误来惩罚自己:Hating a person is penalizing yourself because of the fault of others.
  13. J069:他外表看起来很邋遢,内心却很高贵:He looks indecent in appearance but he is noble in his mind.
  14. J070:生气使人变得愚蠢,这个道理是显而易见的:Outrage will make people foolish. This is quite obvious.
  15. J071:最吸引人的问题是不少顾客只对买不起的商品感兴趣:The most attractive is this--many consumers are only interested in those products. But the cannot afford them.

背诵单词

elegant a.高雅的

old flame n.旧情人

doom n.厄运;判决;vt.注定

goalkeeper n.守门员

worship n.崇拜

背诵句子

  1. 我的英语说得很好:I speak English well.
  2. 北京西站,到了:We are arriving Beijing West Railway Station.
  3. 狗没有找到:I did not find the dog.
  4. 我和你度过了一个美好的日子:I spent a good day with you.
  5. 他死后,我们笑了:He died, then we laugh.
  6. 我给Nick买了一条狗:I bought Nick a dog.
  7. 他给了我五个糖果:He gave me five sugars.
  8. 狗让他开心:The dog makes him delight.
  9. 你的母亲一定像你一样高雅:Your mother must be very elegant like you.
  10. 我的旧情人非常喜欢我:My old flame loves me so much.
  11. 在美国经济中,私有财产的概念不仅包含对生产资源的所有权,也指其他一些特定的权利,如确定一个产品价格和与另一个私人个体(经济单位)自由签定合同的权利:In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract whit another private individual.
  12. 嘲笑其他人的梦想是不对的:Laughing at other's dreams is not right.
  13. 我喜欢嘲笑其他人:I enjoy laughing at others.
  14. 我的计划是去嘲笑愚蠢的人:My plan is to laugh at those stupid ones.
  15. 我反对你:I against be you.
  16. 他哭着离开了:He left crying.
  17. 爱我就是抱抱我:Loving me is hugging me.
  18. 爱你是我最大的错误:Loving you is my biggest fault. 或 It is my biggest fault to love you.
  19. 我是一个老师:I am a teacher.
  20. 我的工作是教Python的:My job is to teach Python.
  21. 帮助你学好Python是我的工作:Helping you to learn Python well is my task.
  22. 外面很热(主语不是外面,外面不能很热,而是温度):It is hot outside.
  23. 重庆现在很冷(主语不是重庆,重庆不能冷,主语应该是温度):It is cold in Jiangxi now.
  24. 外面在下雨(主语不是外面,外面不能下雨,主语应该是天气):It is raining.
  25. 二师兄的头上有朵花:There exists a flower on the head of the second brother.
  26. 有很多人喜欢我:There seem immense amounts of individuals having affection for me.
  27. 有很多原因能解释我的观点:There remain numerous factors accounting for my perspective.
  28. 必须指出语法在考研中还是相当重要的:Grammar must be pointed out to be quite crucial in the examination of postgraduates.
  29. 越来越多的人意识到污染很严重:Pollution is realized exceedingly severe by an increasing number of people.
  30. 我们不应该盲目追星:Superstars should never be pursued blindly.
  31. 孝敬父母很重要:Respecting parents is argued to be of great importance by a sea of private individuals.
  32. 我去上学:I go to school.
  33. 我喜欢Nick:I love Nick.
  34. 我的梦想是成为一名科学家:My dream is becoming a scientist.
  35. 2010年,使用手机的用户增长到了1500万:The number of subscribers using mobile phones increased to 15 million in 2010.
  36. 有一次,我生病了,但没有人照顾我:Once, I got sick but nobody took care of me.
  37. 当爱来临的时候,我要牵住他的手(主将从现):When love comes, I will hold his hands.
  38. 因为他很正直,所以注定了在这场斗争中他会是一个牺牲品:Because he is pretty honest, he will be doomed to be the sacrifice in the fight.
  39. 我在江西居住很多年了:I have been in Jiangxi for many years.
  40. 环境污染这个话题已经成为公众关注的焦点了:The subject as to environmental pollution has become the public concern.
  41. 父母曾经花费那么多时间和精力把我们抚养长大:Parents have spent a lot of time and energy bringing us up.
  42. 守门员正在把自己想象得像蚂蚁一样渺小:The goalkeeper is imaging himself as small as an ant.
  43. 图片中一盏小油灯正在微笑:An oil lamp is smiling in the cartoon.
  44. 合作能使我们更快地完成工作:Cooperation enables us to finish our jobs as quickly as possible.
  45. 孝敬父母是中国民族的传统美德:Respecting parents is a Chinese traditional virtue.
  46. Nick老师很帅:Teacher Nick keeps handsome.
  47. 环境污染越来越严重:Environmental pollution becomes increasingly serious.
  48. 我教Python已经很多年了:I have taught English for years.
  49. 他知道那个:He did know that.
  50. 我每天都煮饭:I cook every day.
  51. 我每天不得不煮饭:I have to cook every day.
  52. 我必须得出去:I must be go out.
  53. 看电视:Watch television.
  54. 看着我:Look at me.
  55. 温室里的花朵不能经受风雨,这个事实证明孩子不应该被过分溺爱:The evidence that the flower in the green house fails to endure any storms indicates that kids should never be spoiled too much.
  56. 温室里的花朵不能经受风雨,这个事实证明孩子不应该被过分溺爱(简单句):We should not protect our children too much. The flower in the house cannot suffer the rain.
  57. 这两天心理很不爽:I feel rather upset recently.
  58. 全球在变暖:It is becoming warm throughout the world.
  59. 重庆有很多人口:There exist a sea of citizens in Chongqing.
  60. 如果有毅力,迟早都会成功:If there appears persistence in your mind, success will be achieved sooner or later.
  61. 有意义就是好好活,好好活就是做有意义的事情:Being meaningful is to live happily and living happily is to do meaningful things.
  62. 笑并不意味着快乐:Smile hardly means happiness.
  63. 妒忌本身就是一种仰望:Jealousy itself is a kind of worship.
  64. 建议政府采取措施来缓解这个问题:Authorities should be suggested to take measures so as to relieve the problem.
  65. 毫无疑问,溺爱孩子的问题越来越严重了:There is little doubt that the issue of spoiling children is becoming growingly serve.
  66. 保护运动员是应该的:Athletes ought to be protected.
  67. 我弟弟每天上网,花大量的时间浏览不同的网页:My brother surfs the Internet every day, spending a lot of time looking on many different web sites.
  68. 恨一个人其实就是拿别人的错误来惩罚自己:Hating a person is penalizing yourself because of the fault of others.
  69. 他外表看起来很邋遢,内心却很高贵:He looks indecent in appearance but he is noble in his mind.
  70. 生气使人变得愚蠢,这个道理是显而易见的:Outrage will make people foolish. This is quite obvious.
  71. 最吸引人的问题是不少顾客只对买不起的商品感兴趣:The most attractive is this--many consumers are only interested in those products. But the cannot afford them.
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