声明:

   1)仅作为个人学习,如有冒犯,告知速删!
   2)不想误导,如有错误,不吝指教!

目标:

   1. 爬取拉钩网中的关于编程语言的 1)薪资,2)城市范围,3)工作年限,4)学历要求;
   2 .将四部分保存到mysql中;
   3.对四部分进行数据可视化;
   4.最后通过pyecharts+bootstrap进行网页美化 .

技能点:

     1. python网络基础(requests,xpath语法等);
   2. MySQL+ pymysql的语法基础;
   3. pyecharts基础;
   4. bootstrap基础;

项目流程及逻辑:

   大方向:先完成爬取一类的信息,进行可视化,走一遍流程很重要,再拓展!

avatar

 

1.进入以下位置:

 

 
                              ------->刷新找到请求url:<--------

 

 

                              ------->分析+请求参数:<--------

 

 

                       ------->因为url是post请求,我们需要提交参数,往下滑:<-------

 

2.解决反爬机制

1. 上面的操作解决的是------>拉钩的ajax请求方式
2. 隐藏在cookies中的时间戳处理:------>session来保持会话-----实时更新cookies
 
1 #获取cookies的函数
2 #start_url = "https://www.lagou.com/jobs/list_python?#labelWords=&fromSearch=true&suginput="
3 def cookieRequest(start_url):
4     r = requests.Session()
5     r.get(url=start_url, headers=headers, timeout=3)
6     return r.cookies

 

 

3.构造流程

1.构造主函数:
 1 if __name__ == '__main__':
 2     #初始url---获取cookies
 3     start_url = "https://www.lagou.com/jobs/list_python?labelWords=&fromSearch=true&suginput="
 4     #模拟请求url
 5     post_url = "https://www.lagou.com/jobs/positionAjax.json?"
 6     #headers
 7     headers = {
 8         "user-agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/83.0.4103.61 Safari/537.36",
 9         "accept": "application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01",
10         "accept-encoding": "gzip, deflate, br",
11         "accept-language": "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8",
12         "referer": "https://www.lagou.com/jobs/list_python?labelWords=&fromSearch=true&suginput=",
13     }
14     # 动态cookies
15     cookies = cookieRequest(start_url)
16     time.sleep(1)
17     #异常处理
18     try:
19         data = {
20             "first": "true",
21             "pn": 1  # 1
22             "kd": "python",
23         }
24         textInformation(post_url, data, cookies)
25         time.sleep(7)
26         print('------------第%s页爬取成功,正在进行下一页--------------' % s)
27     except requests.exceptions.ConnectionError:
28         r.status_code = "Connection refused"

 

2.构造基础页函数
 
 1 def textInformation(post_url, data, cookies):
 2     response = requests.post(post_url, headers=headers, data=data, cookies=cookies,timeout=3).text
 3     div1 = json.loads(response)
 4     # 拿到该页的职位信息
 5     position_data = div1["content"]["positionResult"]["result"]
 6     n = 1
 7     for list in position_data:
 8         infor = {
 9                     "positionName": result["positionName"],
10 11                     "companyFullName": result["companyFullName"],
12                     "companySize": result["companySize"],
13                     "industryField": result["industryField"],
14                     "financeStage": result["financeStage"],
15 16                     "firstType": result["firstType"],
17                     "secondType": result["secondType"],
18                     "thirdType": result["thirdType"],
19 20                     "positionLables": result["positionLables"],
21 22                     "createTime": result["createTime"],
23 24                     "city": result["city"],
25                     "district": result["district"],
26                     "businessZones": result["businessZones"],
27 28                     "salary": result["salary"],
29                     "workYear": result["workYear"],
30                     "jobNature": result["jobNature"],
31                     "education": result["education"],
32 33                     "positionAdvantage": result["positionAdvantage"]
34                 }
35 36         print(infor)
37         time.sleep(5)
38         print('----------写入%s次-------' %n)
39         n +=1

 

 
3.单独获取每个类的show_id(详情页使用):

https://www.lagou.com/jobs/4254613.html? show=0977e2e185564709bebd04fe72a34c9f

 1 show_id = []
 2 def getShowId(post_url, headers, cookies):
 3     data = {
 4         "first": "true",
 5         "pn": 1,
 6         "kd": "python",
 7     }
 8     response = requests.post(post_url, headers=headers, data=data, cookies=cookies).text
 9     div1 = json.loads(response)
10     # 拿到该页的职位信息
11     position_data = div1["content"]["positionResult"]["result"]
12     # 详情页的show_id
13     position_show_id = div1['content']['showId']
14     show_id.append(position_show_id)
15     # return position_show_id

 

4.详情页信息
 1 def detailinformation(detail_id, show_id):
 2      get_url = "https://www.lagou.com/jobs/{}.html?show={}".format(detail_id, show_id)
 3      # time.sleep(2)
 4      # 详情页信息
 5      response = requests.get(get_url, headers=headers,timeout=5).text
 6      # print(response)
 7      html = etree.HTML(response)
 8      div1 = html.xpath("//div[@class='job-detail']/p/text()")
 9      # 职位详情/清洗数据
10      position_list = [i.replace(u'xa0', u'') for i in div1]
11      # print(position_list)
12      return position_list

 

完整代码放在GitHub中:

  https://github.com/xbhog/studyProject

4.暂没解决/完善的问题

  1. 详情页在mysql保存到的时候,有些没有数据,可能是网络抖动或者请求频繁

  1. 没有使用多线程

  2. 没有使用scrapy框架

  3. 没有使用类方法

    ------>下期内容<---------

数据存储:----存储环境ubuntu

  1. Mysql存储

  2. csv存储

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